Allocation and Assignments
Minimum direct allocation is currently /32.
ISP assignments are as follows:
- /64 when it is known that one and only one subnet is needed.
- /56 for small sites, those expected to need only a few subnets over the next 5 years.
- /48 for larger sites
Addresses Space Size
- 340,282,366,920,938,463,463,374,607,431,768,211,456 unique IPs
- 42,535,295,865,117,307,932,921,825,928,971,026,432 IPs in 2000::/3 (1/8th of total address space)
- 1,208,925,819,614,629,174,706,176 IPs in a /48
- 536,870,912 /32 prefixes within 2000::/3
- 65,536 /48 prefixes with a /32
- 65,536 /64 subnets within a /48
- 35,184,372,088,832 /48 prefixes within 2000::/3
- 8,192 IPv6 /48 prefixes for every IPv4 address in 2000::/3 alone.
- 18,446,744,073,709,551,616 IPs within a /64 subnet
- ::/128 - Unspecified
- ::1/128 - loopback (IPv4 127/8 equivalent)
- ::ffff:0:0/96 - IPv4 mapped addresses
- 2000::/3 - IANA Global Unicast
- 2001::/32 - Teredo (RFC-4380)
- 2001:10::/28 - Orchid (RFC-4843)
- 2002::/16 - 6to4
- FC00::/7 - unique local addresses
- FC00::/8 is to be managed by a so-called "ULA-Central" for assigned /48s. As of 9-2007, this body has yet to be formed.
- FD00::/8 is allocated by appending a randomly-generated 40-bit string, to derive a valid /48. RFC4193 offers a suggestion on how to do the random generation, to try to guarantee a minimum-quality result if the user does not have access to a good source of random numbers.
- FE80::/10 - link-local addresses (169.254/16 equivalent)
- FECO::/10 - site-local (deprecated)
- FF00::/8 - multicast
The remaining prefixes are all reserved for future Unicast allocations.
Multicast addresses exist within the 'FF00::/8 prefix.
- FF02::1 - all v6 hosts on local subnet (IPv4 equivalent 220.127.116.11)
- FF02::2 - all v6 routers on local subnet (IPv4 equivalent 18.104.22.168)
Protocol Translation Mechanisms
- faithd can be used to translate on a per service basis.
- ptrtd is a similar and better solution, but only appears to run on Linux at this time.
- NAT-PT is also an option but it has been deprecated.
- Using one of the above, totd is still required to translate DNS.
MAC to EUI64
A MAC address is 48 bit wide, but we need a 64bit host ID in EUI64 format. The transformation is actually quite easy:
- take the MAC of the network device (eg. 00:e0:81:2e:b6:d1)
- flip bit 2 of the first byte (02:e0:81:2e:b6:d1)
- insert FFFE in the middle (02:e0:81:FF:FE:2e:b6:d1)
- combine with the network prefix into an IPv6 address (fe80::2e0:81FF:FE2e:b6d1)
Useful or Interesting Links
- IPv6 6to4 Reverse DNS Delegation - The Number Resource Organization
- Global IPv6 Deployment Progress Report
- SixXS IPv6 to IPv4 and IPv4 to IPv6 Website Gateway
- IPv6: An Interview with Itojun
- Generate Unique Local Address
- IPv4 Address Report
- IPv6 configuration guide for FreeBSD users
|Mar 1996||6bone started|
|Jan 1, 2004||6bone prefix allocations halted.|
|Jul 20, 2004||Experimented with Freenet6 and Hurricane Electric tunnels|
|Jun 6, 2006||6bone prefix phased out (3FFE::/16)|
|Oct 15, 2007||IPv6 6to4 setup|
|Dec 17, 2007||Tera-Byte prefix (2610:78:ad::/48)|
|Feb 4, 2008||IPv6 records added to DNS root|
|July 9, 2008||GoDaddy adds support for IPv6 glue for .com/.net TLDs|
|Mar 12, 2008||Google Accessible via IPv6!|
|Jan 19, 2009||Added IPv6 glue for my name servers (inferno,frosty)|
|Feb 3, 2011||Final five IANA /8 blocks distributed to regional registries.|
|Feb 7, 2011||ThinkTel prefix (2610:1e8:800:100::/56)|
|June 2, 2011||New cable modem is DOCSIS 3, theoretically IPv6 ready.|
|June 8, 2011||World IPv6 day|
|June 6, 2012||World IPv6 Launch|
|April 23, 2014||ARIN Enters Phase Four of the IPv4 Countdown Plan - Final /8|
|Sep 24, 2015||ARIN IPv4 space is exhausted. Rejoice!|
|Feb 8, 2016||The long, long wait is over. My home has native IPv6 via Telus!|
|Jan 31, 2017||I'll get my own damn prefix (2602:ff0d::/36), with blackjack and hookers!|